Adenosine is a chemical, present in all human cells, with medical applications. It can be used to treat tachycardia, in cardiac stress tests, sleep treatment, hair growth and CNS disease treatments.
Adenosine is an important chemical with a variety of functions in the human body. Adenosine comes in three different forms: adenosine, adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Primarily it is an antiarrhythmic medication and can treat irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias). It can also be used during a heart stress test. It exists naturally in all cells of the body and is used to transfer energy within the cells by forming molecules like adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). It is also one of the chemical messengers, or neurotransmitters, within the brain. Research shows that adenosine is an effective natural painkiller, widens blood vessels,helps regulate heart rhythm and also plays a role in sleep.
Adenosine is created naturally within the body from the combination adenine, a nitrogen-based substance, and ribose, a sugar. In addition to being a neurotransmitter, adenosine is classified as a chemical known as a xanthine. Every cell in the body contains some adenosine contained within DNA and RNA.
Adenosine has an important function in many biochemical processes. It is a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator affecting sleep, particularly the initiation of sleep. In the brain, it is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, meaning it acts as a central nervous system depressant and inhibits many processes associated with wakefulness.
While awake levels of adenosine in the brain rise each hour and therefore is believed to be responsible for increasing levels of sleepiness that develop the longer a person stays awake. While someone is awake, adenosine levels gradually increase in areas of the brain that are important for promoting arousal. With higher concentrations, adenosine prevents arousal and causes sleepiness.
These same levels of adenosine decrease during sleep. Scientists believe high levels of adenosine in effect cause sleep. Caffeine found in coffee, tea, and other caffeinated beverages, works to inhibit sleep by blocking the action of adenosine within the brain, which increases wakefulness. In other words, when you drink caffeine, it achieves its stimulating effects by blocking your brain's adenosine processing.
Nuclear stress test
Central nervous system disease